FAQ About the Coronavirus


For information on regulations currently in place at RWTH, such as work from home arrangements, as well as guidelines on holding courses and events, please visit: Measures Currently In Effect to Contain the Spread of the Coronavirus

On this web page, we provide you with FAQ sections on the following topics:


General Questions About the Coronavirus

What do I have to be aware of when entering University premises?

The AHA+L Rules (distancing-hygiene-mask + proper ventilation) are an essential part of RWTH’s safety concept to protect against infection in everyday working life when dealing with colleagues, students, or visitors.

Since we cannot guarantee that the minimum distance can be maintained in the corridors or rooms at all locations, we recommend all members, visitors, and guests of the University wear a medical mask to optimally protect everyone, especially considering the current infection rates. Further information is available here.

If not enough masks are available for employees, these can be ordered in the RWTH Purchasing Portal. They count as so-called occupational health and safety equipment, which must be financed by the employer, i.e. the individual university institution. 

Please actively support the implementation of these regulations, which are intended to protect all university members.

In addition, the following applies: individuals with respiratory infection symptoms (unless clarified by a doctor) or fever or a positive coronavirus antigen test are not allowed to be on the RWTH premises. In case of acute Covid-19 symptoms, the area must be left immediately.

How can I protect myself?

Good hand hygiene, covering your coughs and sneezes, and avoiding close contact with others can protect against respiratory diseases.

The AHA+L Rules (Distancing-Hygiene-Mask+Ventilation) are part of RWTH's safety concept and help prevent infections when dealing with colleagues, students, or visitors.

Please abide by the following recommendations for good cough etiquette:

  • Keep a distance of at least 1.5 meters from other people when sneezing and coughing.
  • Sneeze and cough into a disposable tissue.
  • Always wash your hands after blowing your nose, sneezing, and coughing.
  • If you do not have a tissue to hand, you should keep the crook of your arm in front of your face when coughing and sneezing.

What are the possible signs of infection?

The incubation period for infection with the coronavirus is about five to six days as a rule and, in exceptional cases, up to 14 days. Please be aware of the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Sore throat
  • Body aches
  • General malaise
  • Changes to, or loss of sense of taste or smell

What should I do if I have any symptoms?

It is hard to tell the coronavirus apart from other respiratory illnesses and influenza due to its unspecific symptoms.

If you notice you have one or more of the symptoms above, we strongly recommend that you contact your family doctor by phone to discuss how to proceed.

Avoid all unnecessary contact with other people and, if possible, stay at home. You can contact the University Medical Center for advice via or by telephone at +49 241 80 94444. We can include an interpreter, if the need arises. Please refrain from unannounced visits to the University Medical Center.

What should I do if I test positive for Covid-19?

If you have been diagnosed with Covid-19 and may have potentially infected others (e.g. you were at a work meeting in person or a conference), you should inform the University Medical Center immediately at +49 0241 80 94444.

Where can I find information about quarantine/self-isolation?

You can find information on these topics here.

What do I have to do as a "contact person"?

The definition of who counts as a close contact person according to the RKI and the steps they have to take can be found here.

The following applies to RWTH employees:

As soon as a contact person is officially requested to quarantine, they must notify RWTH as soon as possible via their supervisors and work from home while self-isolating. Please make sure to clear up any necessary technical matters (computer, VPN, etc.). The HR Department will also be happy to answer your questions.

If all safety precuations were implemented at the workplace (medical mask, distancing), the contact persons at the University can continue to work in compliance with the safety measures. They should self-monitor for symptoms of an infection and reduce contact with third parties, where possible.

What do I have to do if I receive a warning from the Corona-Warn-App?

The app distinguishes between red and green warnings.

If your smartphone displays a red warning, in other words, an increased risk of infection, this means first of all that there’s a chance you may have been infected, not that you’ve been infected for sure. The app then gives you initial advice. Please follow this advice.

The following recommendations also apply:

  • Observe the AHA+L rules: Keep your distance, observe hygiene guidelines, wear a mask, and regularly ventilate or air out rooms
  • Remain alert and monitor yourself for possible coronavirus symptoms
  • Contact your primary care physician or the University Medical Center if you experience symptoms and to assess your risk of having been infected

I am worried about my mental health; I suffer from anxiety or depression. Who can help me?

If you have any questions about mental health topics, the experienced psychological counseling team at RWTH is available to all students. The counseling service is also available in English. Employees can contact the team for Advising on Matters of Social Concern, Supervision, and Organizational Development.

Further contact points for psychological counseling emergencies can be found here.

Whom can I contact if I have any questions?

RWTH has set up a hotline for urgent questions by staff and students: .

Please note that our hotline staff are not in a position to provide any medical advice – we recommend that you contact the medical on-call service by phone at 116 117 or the local public health department (Gesundheitsamt).

For citizens of the city of Aachen and the StädteRegion Aachen, an additional coronavirus hotline has been set up in addition to the 115 number. It is only to be used for general information on the subject as well – not for personal medical advice. This hotline is available Monday to Friday from 9am to 3pm, at +49 241 510051.

The NRW Ministry of Health has also set up a hotline for questions on the coronavirus at +49 211 9119 1001 (Monday to Friday, 8am to 6pm).

The authorities expressly request that the emergency numbers 110 and 112 are not used unless there is an actual emergency.

It is important that you closely follow the latest information provided by the German Federal Foreign Office, the Robert Koch Institute, and the German Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA for short. The BZgA also provides information on protecting yourself from the coronavirus.

The Rectorate is monitoring the situation carefully in order to initiate further appropriate measures in case of acute need.

The website of the Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration offers links to documents in various languages, including English and Turkish, on its coronavirus (de) information web page. Furthermore, it recommends the Handbook Germany website which provides comprehensive information on the coronavirus in several languages.

I need signage. Who can I ask about this?

If you are missing coronavirus-related signage in an RWTH building, please feel free to email


FAQ About Vaccinations

Is RWTH offering the opportunity to get vaccinated against COVID-19?

Yes. The University Medical Center is offering vaccinations (and boosters) against COVID-19 for members of RWTH, FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Studierendenwerk Aachen, and Uniklinik RWTH Aachen. Please see the FAQ on vaccinations for more information on this.

Who is eligible to get vaccinated at the University Medical Center?

Due to the University Medical Center's mandate to provide care, RWTH has established a vaccination service for all members of the University, FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Studierendenwerk, and Uniklinik RWTH Aachen.

How can I make an appointment for vaccination?

If you would like to book an appointment, use this link.

  1. Appointment for a first vaccine dose
  2. Appointment for a second vaccine dose
    • from 3 weeks after initial vaccination with Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer)
    • from 3 weeks after initial vaccination with Spikevax® (Moderna)
    • from 3 weeks after initial vaccination with Nuvaxovid® (Novavax)
    • from 4 weeks after a JCOVDEN® vaccine (Janssen)
  3. Appointment for an initial booster vaccine (third vaccine dose)

    Recommended for:
    • All individuals aged twelve or over if they have already had two antibody response opportunities*
    • 6 months after the last vaccine dose or Covid-19 infection at the earliest
  4. Appointment for a second booster vaccine (4th vaccine dose) 
  • Recommended for:
    • Individuals aged 60 or over 
    • Individuals at high risk of getting seriously ill from Covid-19 due to a condition
    • Individuals working in medical facilities
  • 6 months after the last vaccine dose or Covid-19 infection at the earliest
  • Individuals under 60 who are not at high risk and have already had three antibody response opportunities* (including at least one vaccine dose) are not advised to receive another booster at the present time.
  1. Vaccination after a proven coronavirus infection
  • Unvaccinated Individuals who have had one or more Covid-19 infections should receive at least one vaccine dose, leaving at least three months between an infection and a vaccine dose.
  • Individuals who have had a Covid-19 infection following an initial vaccine dose and one booster vaccine dose are not advised to have a further booster.

What are the recommendations regading the booster vaccine?

The STIKO recommends that all individuals aged 12 or over are administered one COVID-19 booster vaccine with an mRNA vaccine at a minimum interval of six months following the initial vaccination series.
The recommendation for the booster vaccine also applies to pregnant women from the second trimester onward.

Individuals under 30 and pregnant women should be vaccinated with Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer), even if another vaccine was administered for the initial vaccination series because there is evidence of a higher risk of myocarditis and pericarditis after vaccination with Spikevax®(Moderna) than with Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer) in individuals under 30.

While the booster vaccine with Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer) is administered at the same dose as for the initial vaccination series, Spikevax® (Moderna) is authorized at half the dose (50µg). It is irrelevant if the same vaccine or mix-and-match vaccines were used for the initial vaccination series.

Immunocompromised individuals are administered the booster vaccine at the same dose as the initial vaccination series, however (100 µg).

At present, Nuvaxovid® has not been approved for booster vaccines. According to the STIKO, it can be offered in individual cases following a medical explanation if the patient has a counterindication for an mRNA Covid-19 vaccine.

What groups of people are recommended to receive a further booster dose? And why?

The STIKO recommends a further booster vaccination for individuals or groups who are particularly at risk or exposed to health risks if they had three antibody response opportunities to date (e.g. primary immunization plus first booster vaccination or primary immunization plus SARS-CoV-2 infection) and if the last of these events occurred more than 6 months ago.

According to the STIKO, the following groups of people should currently receive a further booster vaccination:

  • Persons aged 60 years and older
  • Persons aged 5 years and older with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease as a result of an underlying disorder according to the existing STIKO recommendation
  • Residents and persons cared for in nursing facilities as well as persons at risk for a severe course of the disease in institutions for integration aid
  • Workers in medical facilities and care institutions (especially in direct contact with patients and residents).

The primary goal of the booster vaccination for particularly vulnerable groups of people is to prevent severe COVID-19 disease progression and death. The protection provided by COVID-19 vaccines against infections with the Omicron variant is significantly weaker compared to that against previous variants. However, among currently circulating viral variants, COVID-19 vaccination continues to be highly protective against severe COVID-19 disease, particularly COVID-19-related hospitalizations and deaths.

Healthy individuals who are not immunocompromised and aged <60 years who have already had three antibody response opportunities (at least 1 of which was a vaccination) would not greatly benefit from further vaccination, according to current knowledge.

In older people and people with underlying diseases with a high risk of a severe course of COVID-19, the protective effect can be further optimized through a further booster vaccination.

Underlying diseases with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 courses include, for example:

  • Chronic respiratory diseases, including bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Chronic cardiovascular, liver and kidney diseases
  • Diabetes mellitus and other metabolic diseases
  • Chronic neurological diseases
  • Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Psychiatric diseases
  • Dementia or mental illness
  • Congenital or acquired immunodecficiencies (including patients with neoplastic diseases)
  • HIV infection
  • Autoimmune diseases, incl. rheumatologic diseases
  • Trisomy 21

Staff in medical facilities and nursing homes should be better protected through further booster vaccination, as they are at increased risk of infection due to increased contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Another goal is to maintain medical and nursing care by reducing isolation and quarantine measures.

Booster vaccinations with an mRNA vaccine should be given 6 months after the last vaccine dose or SARS-CoV-2 infection at the earliest. In justified individual cases, (further) booster vaccination can also be considered after 4 months at the earliest. The STIKO recommends an interval of at least 3 months only for patients with immunodeficiency and a resulting relevant limitation of the vaccination response.

What must be considered when scheduling an appointment?

The online tool for managing vaccination appointments makes it possible for eligible individuals to choose an appointment slot within the opening hours of the vaccination center.

You will receive one vaccine dose per appointment. Due to the short shelf-life of the vaccines, please refrain from making multiple bookings and, if possible, from changing appointments at short notice.

Even though we no longer have a vaccine shortage in Germany, it is different elsewhere in the world. Therefore, please be respectful of the resources made available because we do not want to waste any doses.

If you are not able to attend an appointment, please contact the vaccination center (0241 80 38777 or ) immediately. 

Can I still get vaccinated at a vaccination center or general practitioner’s practice?

Yes, of course, you can still get vaccinated elsewhere, if you wish.

How should the COVID-19 vaccination be administered?

Under the STIKO’s recommendations, children aged 5 to 11 should ideally be vaccinated with 1 dose of the Corminaty vaccine (10 µg). Alternatively, the Spikevax vaccine (50µg) is also an option.

Those aged 12 and over should be administered Comirnaty (30µg) or alternatively Nuvaxovid for their initial vaccination series. The STIKO recommends all individuals over 30 are administered the Spikevax (100µg) vaccine, while JCOVDEN (previously Janssen COVID-19) is recommended for those aged 60 and over.

The initial vaccination series generally requires two vaccine doses.

A vaccination series already initiated should generally be continued with the same vaccine, however, exceptions apply: the STIKO recommends individuals who were administered Vaxzevria or JCOVDEN (previously Covid-19 Vaccine Janssen) as their first dose then receive an mRNA vaccine dose.

If, after administering the first mRNA vaccine dose, there is a product-specific medical contraindication to continuing the vaccination series with mRNA vaccines, such as an anaphylactic reaction, the series can be completed with Nuvaxovid, taking into account the STIKO's recommendation.

The STIKO recommends booster vaccines for all persons aged 12 and older and children aged 5 to 11 who have a condition if they have had 2 prior antibody response opportunities (e.g., initial vaccine series with 2 doses or 1 dose and a Covid-19 infection).

Further, the STIKO recommends certain groups of individuals are administered another booster vaccine after 3 antibody response opportunities (e.g., the Covid-19 vaccination series completed and 1st booster vaccine administered). (See: Which groups of individuals are recommended to receive another booster vaccination and why?)

One antibody response opportunity counts as one vaccine dose against Covid-19 or one Covid-19 infection if the appropriate intervals apply. (usually 3 months).  

An mRNA vaccine should usually be administered for booster vaccines.

According to the STIKO, a minimum interval of 6 months from the last antibody response (previous infection or vaccine dose) should be observed for booster vaccines. In justified individual cases, the interval can be reduced to 4 months. Exceptions apply to immunocompromised patients.

Can you receive Influenza and COVID-19 Vaccinations at the same time?

According to the STIKO's recommendation, COVID-19 vaccinations and the administration of other inactivated vaccines (which contain killed pathogens or only pathogen components, and which do not reproduce and cannot cause disease) can be administered simultaneously. This is especially true for influenza vaccinations if there is an indication for vaccination against both influenza and COVID-19. In this case, the injections should be administered to different limbs. When COVID-19 vaccines and influenza vaccines (including high-dose vaccines) are administered concurrently, it should be noted that vaccine reactions may occur more frequently than when administered separately. Efficacy and safety when different vaccines are used concurrently are generally equivalent to those when each is used alone.

Attenuated vaccines (e.g., measles, mumps, and rubella, chickenpox) should be administered with a minimum interval of 14 days before and after each COVID-19 vaccination.

Where can I find the RWTH Vaccination Center?

Vaccinations are offered at the Vaccination Center, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Konferenzraum, Elevator B2, Floor E, Corridor 03, Room 02.

Is there any parking available for RWTH members attending the Vaccination Center?

If you have an appointment for vaccination, you can use the RWTH parking garage at Forckenbeckstraße 50. If you do not have a RWTH parking permit for parking zone U, you can obtain a free day pass the . To obtain a pass, please send them an email several days in advance of your appointment.

Does the Medical Center pass my personal data on to third parties?

As part of the so-called Digital Vaccination Rate Monitoring, the University Medical Center submits the following data to the Bundesdruckerei: first name, last name, date of birth, gender, postal code, vaccination date, batch number, vaccine, first follow-up vaccination, date of recording. The data is temporarily stored there on behalf of the RKI (Robert Koch Institute) and retrieved daily by the RKI.

Will I also receive a digital vaccination certificate from the University Medical Center?

You can obtain a digital vaccination certificate after vaccination on site at the Vaccination Center at Uniklinik RWTH Aachen or at a pharmacy. You can find out in which pharmacy a corresponding offer is available, for example, here. Take your vaccination certificate and an identification document with you.

Further information on the digital vaccination certificate can be found on the website of the Federal Ministry of Health (de).

Am I required to submit my vaccination certificate to RWTH as my employer?

No, workers are not required to let their employer know whether or not they are vaccinated against coronavirus. 

I got my Covid-19 vaccination outside of Europe. Will it be recognized as proof of a 3G option here?

Whether or not your vaccination will be recognized as proof of fulfilling the 3G regulation depends on the type of vaccine you have received. The Paul-Ehrlich-Institut has made pertinent information regarding the equivalence of vaccines available on its website.

The University Medical Center now offers individuals the opportunity to be issued a vaccination certificate if they have received an equivalent vaccine to make it easier for them to have their compliance with the 3G regulation at RWTH checked.

Please contact the Medical Center by email at  or by phone at +49 241-8038777.

I was vaccinated outside the EU and my vaccination is not recognized as equivalent by the Paul Ehrlich Institute. Can I still participate in events at RWTH?

You can participate by providing valid proof of a negative test.

I was vaccinated outside the EU and my vaccination is not recognized as equivalent by the Paul Ehrlich Institute. Can I still participate in events at RWTH? Can I get vaccinated with an equivalent vaccine?

Since September 17, 2021, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends a further vaccination series for individuals who have already been vaccinated abroad with COVID-19 vaccines not licensed in the EU in order to obtain "fully vaccinated" status in the EU. The vaccination series should begin from 28 days later.

In such cases, increased local and systemic reactions may occur, which should be reported to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI).

I was vaccinated outside the EU, but my vaccination is recognized as equivalent by the Paul Ehrlich Institute. How can I make it easier to verify the equivalence of my vaccination at RWTH 3G compliance checks?

The University Medical Center now offers individuals who have received an equivalent vaccine the opportunity to be issued a vaccination certificate, so it will be easier for them to have their compliance with the 3G regulation checked at RWTH. This certificate will (only) be recognized as a vaccination certificate by RWTH(, however). Currently, this offer mainly targets individuals who have received a COVISHIELD vaccine. If the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut recognizes other products, this list will be extended accordingly.

Please contact the Medical Center by email at coronaimpfung@hsa.rwth-aachen.de or by phone at +49 241-8038777.

I have been vaccinated with a vaccine that is not recognized in the EU. Can I get another vaccination?

If you have been administered a vaccine not recognized in the EU and would like to get vaccinated against Covid-19 again here in Germany, please talk to the University Medical Center.

Please contact the Center by email at  or by phone at +49 241-8038777.

Who is considered fully vaccinated or recovered according to the regulations?

Individuals considered "fully vaccinated" or "recovered" is governed by Section 22a of the Act on Infection Protection ("Infektionsschutzgesetz") as of March 19, 2022.

Accordingly, the following individuals are considered “fully vaccinated” in Germany until September 30, 2022:
Individuals who have been vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine licensed in the EU; furthermore, whose last dose was administered 14 days or more prior. Two vaccine doses (vector-based Vaxzevria vaccine from AstraZeneca, JCOVDEN (previously Janssen), as well as mRNA vaccine Spikevax from Moderna or Comirnaty from BioNTech, or Nuvaxovid (Novavax) incl. mix-and-match vaccination scheme) are required to achieve full vaccination protection.

A current list of COVID-19 vaccines recognized in the EU can be found on the PEI website.

  • The following are considered as being fully vaccinated:
    • Individuals who have experienced a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and for whom this test was performed at a time when the affected person had not yet been vaccinated against COVID-19. In this case, the individual is considered fully vaccinated as of the date of the administered vaccine dose.
    • Individuals who have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies* and for whom this test was performed at a time when the affected person had not yet been vaccinated against COVID-19. In this case, the individual is considered fully vaccinated as of the date of the administered vaccine dose.
    • Individuals who have been vaccinated once and have experienced PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection ≥4 weeks after the first vaccine dose. In this case, a person is considered fully vaccinated as of day 29 after the collection of the positive sample.

In Germany, the following are considered to have "recovered" from a COVID-19 infection: 

Individuals with evidence of a previous COVID-19 infection, if testing by laboratory diagnostics by means of nucleic acid detection (PCR, PoC-PCR, or other methods of the nucleic acid amplification technique) has taken place and the date of collection of the positive sample was at least 28 days and at most 90 days prior.

The requirements for proof of recovery apply to previously unvaccinated individuals.

As of October 1, 2022, complete protection against COVID-19 applies to individuals who have been administered a total of three vaccinations, with the last vaccine dose administered at least three months after the second vaccine. Complete protection only applies with two individual vaccine doses if the individual in question has also had a COVID-19 infection.

Is COVID-19 vaccination recommended even after getting infected with COVID-19?

The STIKO assumes that a past symptomatic or asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 alone is not sufficient to prevent subsequent COVID-19 infection. Rather, immunologic studies and observational clinical studies have shown that solid protection against infection and severe disease caused by variants of SARS-CoV-2 can only be obtained by repeated exposure to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. This can be achieved by triple vaccination or by a combination of infection and vaccination (hybrid immunity).

FOr thsi reason, individuals with one or more past COVID-19 infections should also be vaccinated.

The STIKO recommends the administration of one vaccine dose to achieve primary immunization for unvaccinated immunocompromised persons aged 5 years and older who have experienced a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • If the infection was confirmed by a PCR test, vaccination should be administered with an interval of at least 3 months after the illness. 
  • If the infection was confirmed by serological detection of specific antibodies in a blood sample, vaccination can be given as early as 4 weeks after laboratory diagnosis.
  • For persons with immunodeficiency, it must be decided on a case-by-case basis whether a single vaccine dose is sufficient or whether a complete vaccination series should be administered.
  • Individuals who had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection less than 4 weeks after the first vaccine dose, receive a second vaccine dose to achieve primary immunization with an interval of at least 3 months after infection. In the case of serological detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the administration of a vaccine dose is also possible at an interval of 4 weeks from the laboratory diagnosis. If the SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred at an interval of 4 or more weeks from the previous one-time vaccination, no further vaccination is necessary for primary immunization.

For booster vaccinations, the following applies:

  • Individuals who have had a SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequently received a vaccine dose to increase immune protection should receive a booster vaccination at an interval of at least 3 months after the previous vaccination.
  • In order to achieve the best possible (hybrid) immunity, non-vaccinated individuals who have had three or more SARS-CoV-2 infections should also receive a booster vaccination.


Medical Questions About COVID-19 Vaccination

Can I choose which Covid-19 vaccine I get?

When you book an appointment, you can book the vaccine of your choice:

At present, the Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer) and Spikevax® (Moderna), and Nuvaxovid® (Novavax) vaccines are available at the vaccination center.

For individuals under 30 and pregnant women, only Comirnaty is recommended.
In contrast, both mRNA vaccines currently available (Comirnaty and Spikevax) are equally suitable for persons aged 30 or older.

For people under 30, the STIKO recommends exclusively administering the Comirnaty® vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer) due to the higher risk of myocarditis. For people aged 30 and older, there is no increased risk of myocarditis and pericarditis after vaccination with Spikevax (Moderna). The STIKO recommends administering an mRNA vaccine for booster doses.

How is the vaccine administered and who administers it?

The Vaccination Center is operated by the Medical Center of RWTH Aachen University.

Before you come in for your vaccination appointment, please read the information sheet thoroughly. Please bring the completed consent form and your Vaccination Certificate ("Impfausweis") with you to the appointment.

The vaccine is injected into the upper arm muscle by a doctor or a certified medical assistant legally authorized to administer vaccinations. Afterward, there will be a 15 to 30-minute observation period, so help can be provided immediately, should anyone begin to experience acute side effects.

Consent and Information Sheet COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine

Which vaccines are being used?

Five coronavirus vaccines are currently licensed in Germany, with two of them currently used at the Vaccination Center at Uniklinik RWTH Aachen: Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer) and Spikevax Moderna®. If necessary, it is also possible to get vaccinated with the Nuvaxovid® vaccine from Novavax.

mRNA vaccines

  1. The Comirnaty® vaccine, jointly produced by BioNTech and Pfizer. Comirnaty® was approved by the European Medicines Agency on December 21, 2020.
  2. COVID-19 vaccine Spikevax from Moderna, which was developed in cooperation with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The European Medicines Agency granted authorization for the vaccine on January 7, 2021.

Viral Vector Vaccines

  1. The viral vector vaccine AstraZeneca® by British-Swedish company AstraZeneca was approved by the European Medicines Agency on January 29, 2021.
  2. COVID-19 Vaccine JCOVDEN from Janssen-Cilag International (Johnson & Johnson) was approved by the European Medicines Agency on March 11, 2021.

Protein-Based Vaccine

  1. The European Medicines Agency granted conditional authorization for Nuvaxovid – a COVID-19 vaccine developed by Novavax – on December 20, 2021.

Inactivated Whole Virus Vaccine

The European Medicines Agency approved the inactivated and adjuvanted whole virus vaccine Valneva (Valneva Austria GmbH) on June 24, 2022. Currently, the vaccine is not yet available in Germany.

What is an mRNA vaccine?

The vaccines are genetically engineered in the laboratory and consist of mRNA (messenger RNA) packed into small lipid or fat droplets – so-called nanoparticles. The mRNA contains the blueprint for a surface antigen, the so-called spike antigen of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. When this mRNA reaches the target cell, it uses the body's own mechanism (ribosomes) to produce proteins, in this case, the viral surface antigen. The body then develops antibodies against these antigens in order to be able to protect itself accordingly in the event of actual contact with the virus. Viral proteins can also trigger a T cell response (CD4, CD8) (cellular immune response). T cells help the immune system fight intracellular infections and they can also kill the infected cells directly.

The mRNA remains in the cytoplasm of the cell and naturally decays there after a short time. The mRNA does not enter the nucleus, where the cell's DNA is located. There is also no evidence that the mRNA absorbed up by the body's cells after vaccination is transcribed into DNA.  For this reason, there are no changes in the genetic material of the cell.

What is a COVID-19 viral vector vaccine?

The vector viruses used in the AstraZeneca vaccine are adenoviruses (modified viruses that cause colds in chimpanzees), which are harmless to humans. The virus vaccine does not replicate (i.e. reproduce) in the human body and therefore cannot cause infection.

After vaccination, the virus vaccine containing the SARS-CoV-2 gene enters a few body cells. The cells use the gene to make the spike protein. The immune system recognizes it as an invader and, in response, produces antibodies and T cells that ideally protect against infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

In natural adenovirus infections, no genetic alteration of human cells has been observed so far. Adenoviral vectors are generally considered non-integrating vectors, i.e. they do not integrate their genetic material into the cell genome. The genome of COVID-19 vector vaccines based on non-replicable adenoviruses, like that of other adenoviruses, remains outside the human DNA (extrachromosomal) in the nucleus of infected cells.

Also, in view of the fact that adenoviral vectors – unlike natural cold viruses – do not replicate in the human body due to genetic alterations and are rapidly eliminated by the body, there is no risk of the adenoviral vector DNA integrating into the human genome according to current scientific findings.

What ingredients do the vaccines contain?

In addition to the active ingredient (mRNA), the COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna® contains the following ingredients, according to the manufacturer's information:

  • the proprietary ionizable lipid SM-102
  • 1,2-Dimyristoyl-rac-glycero-3-methoxypolyethylene glycol-2000 [PEG2000-DMG]
  • Cholesterol
  • 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC]
  • Tromethamine
  • Tromethamine hydrochloride
  • Acetic acid
  • Sodium acetate
  • Saccharose
  • Water for injections

In addition to the active ingredient (mRNA), the Comirnaty® vaccine by Biontech/Pfizer contains the following ingredients, according to the manufacturer:

  • ALC-0315 = (4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2- hexyldecanoate)
  • ALC-0159 = 2-[(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide
  • DSPC= 2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3 phosphocholine
  • Cholesterol
  • Potassium chloride
  • Potassium dihydrogen phosphate
  • Sodium chloride
  • Disodium phosphate dihydrate
  • Saccharose
  • Water for injections

It does not contain adjuvant, nor preservatives, nor egg white.According to the manufacturer, the stopper of the Comirnaty® vials is not made of natural rubber latex.

One dose (0.5 ml) of Nuvaxovid vaccine contains 5 mg of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the Matrix-M adjuvant.

Other ingredients:

  • Disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate
  • Sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate
  • Sodium chloride
  • Polysorbate 80
  • Sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment)
  • Hydrochloric acid (for pHadjustment)
  • Water for injections

Adjuvant Matrix-M contains per 0.5 mL dose: Fraction-A (42.5 micrograms) and Fraction-C (7.5 micrograms) of Quillaja saponaria Molina extract. Other ingredients:

  • Cholesterol
  • Phosphatidylcholine (including all-rac-α-Tocopherol)
  • Potassium dihydrogen phosphate
  • Potassium chloride
  • Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate
  • Sodium chloride
  • Water for injections


One dose (0.5 mL) of JCOVDEN contains:

Adenovirus type 26 encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein

The product contains genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Other ingredients:

  • 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD)
  • Citric acid monohydrate
  • Ethanol
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Polysorbate-80
  • Sodium chloride
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Trisodium citrate dihydrate
  • Water for injections

Was the vaccine adequately tested prior to approval?

The genome of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was fully decoded in January 2020 and the first vaccine candidates were already available by the end of December. This was made possible by overlapping or telescoping the different test phases (I/II and II/III) and forwarding all study results immediately to the regulatory authorities on a rolling basis, where they were prioritized, thus saving much time overall. Besides, never before has so much financial support been given to vaccine research worldwide, because it is clear to everyone that only effective vaccines available to a large proportion of the world’s population can contain the pandemic in the near future.

The European Medicines Agency’s approval for the Comirnaty® vaccine, jointly manufactured by BioNTech and Pfizer, was approved on December 21, 2020. The COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna® was approved on January 7, 2021. The third vaccine to be approved for the EU by the European Medicines Agency was the COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca® from British-Swedish company AstraZeneca on January 29, 2021.

COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen from Janssen-Cilag International (Johnson & Johnson) was approved by the European Medicines Agency on March 11, 2021.

The two mRNA vaccines are licensed for use from age ≥ 12 years and the two vector-based vaccines from age ≥18 years.

Why do two doses need to be administered?

The second dose further stimulates the immune system – already stimulated by the first dose – to produce sufficient antibodies against the virus. We know from other vaccinations that antibodies are not only produced more frequently, but they also last longer. Some diseases even require three vaccinations (e.g. hepatitis B or diphtheria).

How effective is the protection offered by the vaccination?

The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines Comirnaty (BioNTech/Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) and the vector vaccine Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) provide very high efficacy of about 90% against severe COVID-19 disease (e.g. necessitating hospital treatment) and good efficacy of about 75% against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection when infected with the Delta variant (see Living Systematic Review , 2021). This meant that if a person came into contact with the pathogen after primary immunization, it would be highly unlikely for them to become severely ill.

The mRNA vaccines Comirnaty (BioNTech/Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) and the vector vaccine JCOVDEN (Johnson & Johnson) provide less protection against the omicron variant than against the Delta variant. This is also supported by the updated Living Systematic Review conducted by the RKI.

The study results show that overall efficacy after two doses of vaccine (primary immunization) against symptomatic or unsymptomatic infection with the Omicron variant is low and declines significantly over time. Booster vaccination can improve protective efficacy. However, vaccination continues to provide good protection against severe disease. Data suggest that here, too, the protective efficacy declines after primary immunization.

After a booster vaccination, protection against severe disease is again at a high level. Data indicate declining protection against (symptomatic) infection over time even after booster vaccination. However, the high level of protection against severe infection persists for at least 6-9 months after booster vaccination.

A second booster vaccination leads to a renewed improvement in efficacy in high-risk target groups. There are no significant differences in efficacy between the different vaccines studied (Comirnaty, Spikevax, JCOVDEN) and vaccination regimens (such as mix-and-match).

There are insufficient data to date on omicron transmissibility; risk of infection appears to remain reduced in vaccinated individuals, although the extent of the reduction is not fully understood. Household studies from Norway and Denmark indicate that vaccination, even under significant exposure to the omicron variant, reduces transmissibility by approximately 6-21% after primary immunization and by a further 5-20% after booster vaccination.

The Nuvaxovid (Novavax) vaccine is currently known to provide good protection, but data are limited. The registration studies, which predominantly investigated protection against the alpha variant, showed an efficacy of about 90% against mild to severe COVID-19 disease. However, reliable conclusions regarding the protection of vaccination against severe disease cannot be made. Data regarding the clinical protective effect of basic immunization against the omicron variants are not yet available for Nuvaxovid.

How quickly does the vaccine become effective?

Full effectiveness only develops after the second dose. Correspondingly high antibody titers should develop approximately two weeks after the second dose, thus around five to six weeks following the first dose. However, the approval studies of the two vaccines COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna® and Comirnaty® also show that even the first vaccine dose has a certain effectiveness.

The AstraZeneca vaccine achieved 60% (41-73%) of effectiveness 28 to 34 days after the first dose, later increasing to 73% (27-90%).

What are the recommendations regarding booster vaccinations?

The STIKO recommends that everyone aged 12 or over receives a COVID-19 booster vaccine with an mRNA vaccine at a minimum interval of three months from the initial vaccination series. The aim of the booster vaccination campaign and shortened vaccination interval is to prevent severe courses of COVID-19 and reduce transmission, particularly of the Omicron variant.

The recommendation for the booster vaccine also applies to pregnant women from the second trimester onward. If possible, the same mRNA vaccine that was used for the initial vaccination should be administered. If this is not available, the other mRNA vaccine can also be used. Individuals under 30 and pregnant women should be vaccinated with Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer), even if another vaccine was administered for the initial vaccination because there is evidence of a higher risk of myocarditis and pericarditis after vaccination with Spikevax®(Moderna) than with Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer) in individuals under 30.

The booster vaccine with Comirnaty® (BioNTech/Pfizer) is administered at the same dose as for the initial vaccination. Spikevax® (Moderna) is authorized for the booster vaccine of individuals with a healthy immune system at half the dose (50µg).

Whether and for whom further booster vaccinations will be necessary in the future is uncertain. Scientific evidence is still lacking to investigate the efficacy after three doses of vaccine over a longer period of time.

Since vaccine protection declines more rapidly in older individuals or individuals with immunodeficiency, these groups should receive a booster vaccination as a matter of priority.

Initial data regarding the protective efficacy against the omicron variant show a lower efficacy compared to the delta variant. However, after administration of booster vaccination, significantly improved protective efficacy against symptomatic infection and severe disease was observed with the omicron variant. The extent to which adapted vaccines will be needed in the future is not clear at this time. Vaccine manufacturers are currently working on adapted vaccines. The STIKO will evaluate these data as soon as they are available.

Does it make sense to determine the antibody titer before receiving a booster vaccination?

Incorrectly, many people assume that (booster) vaccines should not be administered if antibody levels are high after initial immunization against COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, this is not correct.

It is not known at what level sufficient protection against the disease can be assumed. Therefore, it is also not recommended to check for continued protection against COVID-19 via serological antibody testing before administering the (booster) vaccine. There are no safety concerns for (booster) vaccines when immunity is still present.

Can vaccinated individuals pass the virus on to others?

Data from pre-approval studies and from observational studies show that the COVID-19 vaccines used in Germany prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection with the Delta variant (symptomatic and asymptomatic) to a considerable extent. The likelihood of an individual becoming PCR-positive despite complete vaccination is significantly reduced. In addition, viral shedding is shorter in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 despite vaccination than in unvaccinated individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. The extent to which vaccination reduces transmission

Recent studies show that vaccination provides protection against symptomatic and asymptomatic infections even in the presence of the Delta variant. Protection is reduced compared to the Alpha variant. At the same time, protection against severe disease (hospitalization) remains high. Initial findings on vaccine efficacy against the Omicron variant show that efficacy against symptomatic disease is significantly reduced by the omicron variant after basic immunization. However, good efficacy against Omicron was observed after booster vaccination.

Overall, the risk of individuals becoming PCR-positive and transmitting the virus despite vaccination is significantly reduced under the Delta variant. How high the transmission risk is under Omicron cannot be determined at present. However, it must be assumed that people become PCR-positive after contact with SARS-CoV-2 despite vaccination and also shed the  virus and become infectious. These people may either develop symptoms of an illness (which is usually rather mild) or no symptoms at all. In addition, vaccination protection decreases over time and the probability of becoming PCR-positive despite vaccination increases.

In addition, the risk of transmitting the virus to others in the absence of symptoms must be further reduced by adhering to infection protection measures. Therefore, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends that the generally recommended protective measures (contact reduction, face masks, hygiene rules, keeping your distance, ventilation) continue to be observed even after vaccination.

Can vaccine breakthrough infections occur and how common are they?

No vaccine is 100% effective. The vaccines against the SARS-COV-2 virus show very high efficacy, even against the significantly more contagious delta variant.

The Robert Koch Institute has conducted continuous monitoring of vaccine effectiveness since the beginning of the vaccination campaign.

A vaccine breakthrough infection is defined as SARS-CoV-2 infection (with clinical symptoms) diagnosed in a fully vaccinated person via PCR test or pathogen isolation. Complete vaccination protection is assumed when at least two weeks have elapsed after a completed vaccination series (RKI).

As of the RKI Situation Report dated September 9, 2021, 30,880 probable vaccine breakthrough infections have been identified in Germany, out of 103,165,990 vaccine doses administered (54,890,847 fully vaccinated). (Source: Quelle RKI Wochenbericht 9.9.)

What do these figures mean in terms of vaccination effectiveness?

At present, it is clear that the majority of patients treated at Uniklinik RWTH Aachen have not been vaccinated.

For some time now, the vaccination status has to be included in the notification of COVID cases.

By comparing the proportion of fully vaccinated individuals among those infected with COVID-19 with the proportion of fully vaccinated persons in the population, it is possible to estimate the vaccination effectiveness.

The RKI arrives at the following assessment of estimated vaccine effectiveness (period of the last four weeks, week 32-35):

  • Protection against hospitalization: approximately 96% (age 18-59 years) and approximately 94% (age ≥60 years), respectively.
  • Protection from treatment in intensive care unit: approx. 97% (age 18-59 years) or approx. 94% (age ≥60 years)
  • Protection against death: approx. 100% (age 18-59 years) or approx. 91% (age ≥60 years)

Click here for the RKI's current report (de).

Statistically, it is expected that over time more and more breakthrough covid infections (that is, infection of fully vaccinated individuals) will be reprted as more and more people are vaccinated. With an increased spread of the virus, the probability of coming into contact with the virus increases for all people, including those who have been fully vaccinated.

What side effects or complications can arise?

In principle, a distinction must be made between mild but frequent reactions and rare but severe complications.

Harmless, mild reactions are actually a "good reaction" because they show that the body is responding to the vaccine and developing an immune response. Common and harmless vaccine reactions described in the approval studies of the COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna® and Cominarty® vaccines include redness or swelling of the injection site. Fever, fatigue, nausea, and muscle, joint, and headaches may also occur after vaccination. In very rare cases, swelling of the lymph nodes may also arise. Mild vaccination reactions occur more frequently in younger individuals and more often after the second vaccination. The vaccination reactions persisted for a maximum of one to two days and were reversible without exception. A painkiller or fever-reducing medication in the recommended dose can be taken in order to reduce possible complaints.

Serious adverse effects, on the other hand, go beyond a normal vaccination reaction and significantly burden the health of the vaccinated individual.

In the extensive pre-approval clinical trials, cases of acute facial paralysis were observed rarely (between 0.1% and 0.01%) after administration of the mRNA vaccines (Comirnaty : 4 cases after administration of the vaccine; Spikevax®: 3 cases after administration of the vaccine, and 1 case in the control group). In all cases, the facial paralysis regressed after a few weeks. These facial paralysis cases may be causally related to the vaccination. Hypersensitivity reactions were observed in rare cases (between 0.1% and 0.01%): Hives or facial swelling after administration of Comirnaty and 2 cases of facial swelling after administration of Spikevax®. Since the introduction of vaccination, anaphylactic reactions (immediate allergic reactions) have been reported in very rare cases. These occurred shortly after vaccination and required medical treatment. This is also very rare, but, in principle, life-threatening complication of vaccination. 

Please also read the section "Can people with allergies get vaccinated?"

Also since the introduction of vaccinations with mRNA vaccines Comirnaty (BioNTech/Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna), rare cases of myocarditis and pericarditis have been observed in young individuals after administration of the vaccines. Current reports show that myocarditis and pericarditis were observed more frequently in boys and young men and in girls and young women under 30 after vaccination with Spikevax than after vaccination with Comirnaty. For those aged 30 or over, there is no increased risk of myocarditis and pericarditis after vaccination with Spikevax. According to safety reports available to date, the acute course of vaccine-related myocarditis and pericarditis is predominantly mild.

Pre-approval Studies of Booster Vaccination:
Both mRNA vaccines have been approved for initial immunization and booster vaccination. The frequency and nature of possible vaccine reactions and adverse events after booster vaccination are comparable to those after the second dose of vaccine. Serious adverse vaccine-related events did not occur. Also, no cases of myocarditis or pericarditis were observed.


The most commonly reported vaccine reactions in the approval studies were tenderness at the injection site (more than 60%), pain at the injection site, headache and fatigue (more than 50%), muscle pain and malaise ( more than 40%), increased temperature and chills (more than 30%), joint pain and nausea (more than 20%). Frequently (between 1% and 10%), a decrease in blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia), vomiting, diarrhea, redness and swelling of the injection site, and fever have been observed. Occasionally (between 0.1% and 1%), lymph node swelling, decreased appetite, dizziness, drowsiness, increased sweating, itching, and a generalized rash occurred.

Since the introduction of the vaccine, blood clots (thromboses) associated with a reduction in the platelet count (thrombocytopenia), sometimes accompanied by bleeding, have been observed in very rare cases (less than 0.01%) after vaccination with Vaxzevria®. These included some severe cases with blood clots in different or unusual locations (e.g., in the brain as sinus vein thromboses and also in the abdomen), together with increased clotting activity or also bleeding throughout the body. The majority of these cases occurred within 2 to 3 weeks after vaccination and predominantly in persons younger than 60 years. Some of the cases described ended fatally or with permanent damage.

Also since the introduction of vaccination, very rare (less than 0.01%) cases of capillary leak syndrome have been observed following vaccination with Vaxzevria®, some in individuals who had previously experienced capillary leak syndrome, and some with fatal outcomes. Capillary leak syndrome occurred in the first days after vaccination and is characterized by rapidly progressive swelling of the arms and legs, sudden weight gain, and feeling of weakness and requires immediate medical attention. 

In addition, very rare cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome have been reported after vaccination with Vaxzevria®, some with fatal outcomes. Whether these cases are causally related to the vaccination is under further investigation. Guillain-Barré syndrome is characterized by weakness or paralysis in the legs and arms, which can extend to the chest and face and may require intensive medical care. Lastly, complications must be mentioned that are not caused by the vaccine but may be caused by the injection itself. Here, as with any other injection, there is an extremely small residual risk of bleeding, infection, or nerve and soft tissue injury, even with proper injection technique.

COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen®

The most commonly reported vaccine reactions in the studies were pain at the injection site (more than 40%), headache, fatigue, and muscle pain (more than 30%), and nausea (more than 10%). Frequently (between 1% and 10%), fever, cough, joint pain, redness and swelling of the injection site, and chills were reported. Occasionally (between 0.1% and 1%), tremors, sneezing, pain in the mouth and throat, general rash, increased sweating, weakness of muscles, pain in the arm or leg, back pain, general feeling of weakness, and malaise occurred. In rare cases (0.01% to 0.1%), hypersensitivity reactions and hives occurred. In addition, after vaccination with COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen®, blood clots (e.g. in the brain as sinus vein thrombosis or also in the abdominal cavity) associated with a reduction in the blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia) were observed in very rare cases (less than 0.01 %) and in some cases with a fatal outcome. These cases occurred within 3 weeks of vaccination and predominantly in persons younger than 60 years. Also since the introduction of vaccination, very rare cases of capillary leak syndrome have been observed after vaccination with COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen®, some in persons who had previously developed capillary leak syndrome and some with fatal outcomes. Capillary leak syndrome occurred in the first days after vaccination and is characterized by rapidly progressive swelling of the arms and legs, sudden weight gain, and feeling of weakness and requires immediate medical attention.

In addition, very rare cases (less than 0.01%) of Guillain-Barré syndrome have been reported after vaccination with COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen. These cases may be causally related to the vaccination. Guillain-Barré syndrome is characterized by weakness or paralysis in the legs and arms that may extend to the chest and face and may require intensive medical care. Since the introduction of vaccination, immediate allergic reactions (anaphylactic reactions) have been reported in very rare cases. These occurred shortly after vaccination and required medical treatment. In principle - as with all vaccines - in very rare cases an allergic immediate reaction up to shock or other also so far unknown complications cannot be excluded.

Why has the routine use of the AstraZeneca vaccine been temporarily suspended in Germany?

In Germany and other European countries, vaccination with the AstraZeneca vaccine has been temporarily suspended. This decision was taken on March 15, 2021, by the German Federal Ministry of Health on the advice of the Paul Ehrlich Institute, following an increased incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis associated with the vaccination. A total of seven people were affected in Germany, including six women with so-called sinus vein thrombosis, three of whom have since died. At the time of suspension, it was not clear whether this was a coincidental cluster or causally related to the vaccination, and time was needed to review the cases.

On March 18, 2021, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended to continue vaccination with AstraZeneca because the benefits of the vaccination outweigh the potential risks and because a causal relationship to cerebral venous thrombosis and coagulation disorders could neither be safely excluded nor clearly proven. The use of the vaccine was then continued in Germany and also at Uniklinik RWTH Aachen from March 19, 2021. Currently, the use of the AstraZeneca vaccine is not planned for further initial vaccinations at Uniklinik.

How am I to behave before and after vaccination?

If you have fainted after a previous vaccination or other injection, are prone to immediate allergic or other reactions, please inform the doctor prior to vaccination. Then they can observe you after vaccination, if necessary. 

Please tell the clinician before vaccination if you have a clotting disorder or are taking anticoagulant medication. You may be vaccinated after taking a few precautions. 

Please also tell the clinician before vaccination if you have had an allergic reaction or have allergies after a vaccination in the past. The clinician will clarify with you whether there are any reasons not to administer the vaccination. 

It is advisable to avoid extraordinary physical stress and competitive sports in the first days after vaccination.

In case of pain or fever after the vaccination, pain-relieving and/or fever-reducing medication can be taken. Your family doctor can advise you on this.

If symptoms occur after vaccination that exceed the above-mentioned rapidly transient local and general reactions, your family doctor is of course available for consultation. In case of severe impairments, chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, please seek medical treatment immediately.

Are we covered by insurance for vaccine injury?

Uniklinik RWTH Aachen only uses vaccines that have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and recommended by the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). Under these conditions, the public authorities guarantee they will cover the costs of any vaccination injury.

Is data available on long-term side effects?

Experience with many vaccines over many years has shown that most side effects occur a short time, usually within a few days to a few weeks after vaccination. Vaccines continue to be actively monitored by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut even after they have been approved, so that more and more knowledge is being gained here about long-term safety, especially very rare side effects, in different population groups.

Side effects that occur unexpectedly and only a long time (for example, several years) after vaccination have not yet been observed with any vaccine and are not to be expected with the COVID-19 vaccines. In the past, very rare side effects have occurred in vaccinated individuals shortly after vaccination that were not recognized by researchers until later. The reason for this is that a very large number of people have to be vaccinated in order to detect very rare side effects and usually, it takes some time for such numbers to be vaccinated. The COVID-19 vaccines were administered to many people all around the world in a very short time. Therefore, very rare side effects can be detected and assessed faster than usual.

For example, so far the following side effects have been reported as occurring a short time after COVID-19 vaccination: After approval of the vaccine Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) and COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen (Janssen-Cilag International), specific forms of thrombosis occurred in vaccinated individuals. To date, these adverse events have been observed predominantly in women aged under 55, but men and older individuals have also been affected. Very rare events have also been observed with the mRNA vaccines after approval in the form of pericarditis and myocarditis. These myocarditides are usually mild and heal without consequences. However, it is not yet known whether myocarditis in individual cases can also have effects later on, such as myocardial insufficiency.

The Paul-Ehrlich-Institut points out that there is no need to worry about so-called long-term side effects occurring years after vaccination. It regularly evaluates suspected cases of adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccines in its safety reports and reports on them in its dedicated coronavirus dossier.

Suspected cases of adverse reactions can also be reported.

What should I do if I suspect I am suffering from side effects?

If symptoms occur after a vaccination which exceed the above-mentioned temporary local and general reactions, you can of course consult with your family doctor. If you experience severe adverse effects, chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, please seek medical attention immediately.

If you experience severe adverse effects, especially if you develop a persistent headache, shortness of breath, or pinpoint bleeding of the skin 4 to14 days after the AstraZeneca® vaccine was administered, you should seek medical attention immediately.


Who monitors vaccination reactions and how can side effects be reported?

Even with widespread use, the efficacy, safety, and also the length of protection of COVID vaccines will be continuously reviewed and evaluated by the pharmaceutical companies themselves as well as by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute and the responsible committees at the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In case there are indications of possible side effects, they can react very quickly. If you or your attending physician suspect you are experiencing side effects, you can report it to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) as the highest federal authority, your local health department, or in the PEI's SafeVac app.

Are there any contraindications for being vaccinated?

There are very few reasons (contraindications) why a person cannot be permanently or temporarily vaccinated against COVID-19.

According to the RKI’s assessment, only very few persons cannot be vaccinated due to allergies to components of the COVID-19 vaccines (see "Can persons with allergies be vaccinated?").

In general, individuals who cannot be vaccinated with one of the vaccine types (mRNA vs. vector-based) can be vaccinated with the other.

In the case of myocarditis after mRNA vaccination, future vaccines must be selected on an individual basis.

There are also two rare contraindications for the vector-based JCOVDEN vaccine (formerly COVID-19 vaccine from Janssen ): pre-existing thrombosis-with-thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) or capillary leak syndrome. Both are very rare pre-existing conditions. In these cases, mRNA vaccines can be used.

Infections with temperatures >38 °C are a temporary contraindication; vaccination can be given after the fever has subsided.

Vaccination is generally not recommended for pregnant women before the 2nd trimester.

Children under 5 years of age cannot currently be vaccinated. No vaccine has been approved for them. However, research is being conducted so that a vaccine for this age group is expected to be available in the future.


Questions About Coronavirus Tests

What options are there for students and employees to get tested?

Städteregion Aachen provides up-to-date information on all testing opportunities in Aachen and the region on its website. This website also includes information for people who live in neighboring countries and work at RWTH.

Employees who work on-site are to be offered a self-test by the university institution at least once a week.

Are additional coronavirus self-tests available to staff?

Yes, university institutions may purchase coronavirus self-tests from the RWTH Purchasing Portal.

Who are the coronavirus self-tests in the RWTH Purchasing Portal for?

Employees who are not exclusively working from home are to be offered at least one self-test by the respective university institution each week.

How do the self-tests that are available through the RWTH Purchasing Portal work?

Please note that several different test products are available for purchase through the RWTH Purchasing Portal. Please check which product you have bought and refer to the respective instructions for use below. (Of course, you will also find printed instructions enclosed in the packages you have purchased)

Product: CLINITEST Rapid COVID-19 Antigen Self-Test

Instructions for use (de)
Quick reference guide (de)
Video instructions (de)

Product: HOTGEN (2019-nCoV)-Antigen Test

Instructions for use (de)
Video instructions (de)

Product: RightSign

RightSign Quick Reference Guide

What do I need to do if a coronavirus self-test delivers a positive result?

In this case, you must have a rapid test or PCR test carried out as a control test immediately at a test center. Until they receive a negative result, individuals must avoid all non-essential close contact with others and strictly adhere to hygiene and infection protection measures. If the self-test is carried out at the workplace, the employee must leave the workplace immediately. If the self-test was conducted before a course for access purposes, they also have to leave the premises immediately. Individuals who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 with a control test are subject to the current quarantine rules.

Must / Should university institutions document to whom they have issued self-tests and what the results were?

No. These coronavirus self-tests are offered to employees on a purely voluntary basis. The university does not expect institutions to keep records on the tests they have issued to staff or the results.

Can a certificate be issued for the self-test conducted in my university institution?

RWTH employees can certify other employees’ negative self-test results. The prerequisite for this is that the certifying person has previously accepted and signed the induction training given to them via the instruction sheet (de). The signed instruction sheet must be kept at the respective university institution and presented if required.

I have Covid-19 symptoms. Which test is useful/sufficient?

In symptomatic individuals, a PCR test or a rapid test at a test center provide a result on whether they are infected with Covid-19.

Please note: Any individuals experiencing symptoms that could be due to an infection with Covid-19 are not allowed in the buildings of RWTH until these symptoms are confirmed as unrelated to the coronavirus.


FAQs about the workplace

For my tax return, I need a certificate that I have been working from home. Who issues the certificate at RWTH?

A fact sheet and a form for issuing the certificate are available in the Forms Center. The certificate can be issued and completed by the management of the university institution, your head of division, or the representative in office.

The form and fact sheet are available here.

Under what conditions is exceptional working from home permitted?

Employers are no longer required to offer working from home arrangements.

From now on, individual arrangements can be determined with employees in the University institutions via the "Agreement on Working from Home and Situational Mobile Work”. This agreement is available for download in German.

Home Office Guide (de)

If working from home is not possible, the workplace has to comply with specific guidelines. See the special protective measures and recommendations for in-person work.

How can I use the central IT services when working from home?

The IT Center has summarized all the relevant instructions and further information.

How does the workplace have to be set up?

The management of the respective university institution must create the conditions required to comply with the existing distance and hygiene regulations. Due to the existing legal requirements, this action must be documented by carrying out the general risk assessment for the workplace.

Both managers and employees in the respective university institutions are responsible for complying with the distance and hygiene regulations.

If employees of an at-risk group are working at the office, suitable protective measures must be agreed upon with the Occupational Safety and Radiation Protection Staff Unit and the University Medical Center if necessary, so that their risk of infection is low.

See Protective Measures and Recommendations for In-Person Work

What do employees working on site at RWTH have to consider?

You can find further information about important regulations here.

What is the “2G Option”?

Depending on the circumstances, it is possible to consider the adjustment of protective measures for fixed groups with confirmed 2G-compliant status. If only vaccinated or recovered employees (“2G”) come together in certain work situations, it may be possible to waive individual occupational safety measures (such as wearing masks or keeping minimum physical distances). However, this is only possible if all employees working in the same room voluntarily agree to do. Such adjustments can only be requested by the respective employees. Any adjustments are granted on a voluntary basis and may be repealed. Neither RWTH nor the respective supervisors are authorized to inquire about an employee’s vaccination status or the like.

If a group of employees wishes to make use of this deviation from the occupational health and safety measures, each employee in the group and their supervisor(s) must sign the risk assessment form.

All employees making use of the 2G option agree to take a coronavirus self-test at least twice a week. However, we recommend that tests be conducted every day.

Do I have to sign the “Risk Assessment to Contain the Spread of SARS-CoV-2, Taking Into Account 2G-Compliant Status”?

Not necessarily. This risk assessment will only have to be signed by employees who voluntarily use the 2G option and thus wish to dispense with some protective measures on a room-by-room basis based on their 2-G compliant status (vaccinated or recovered) and willingness to conduct self-tests at least twice a week. This option is only available if all employees sharing a room agree to do so voluntarily. These employees and their supervisor(s) must sign the risk assessment.

Are there any policies and regulations for holding events?

All events can be held in a face-to-face format again. In particular, in-person courses should once again be the norm in the summer semester.

Instructors are encouraged to continue with the flipped classroom formats that were already well established before the pandemic. If instructors want to offer their courses in an entirely virtual format for justifiable reasons, they must clarify this with the respective Office of the Dean of Academic Affairs or Dean's Office. In this case, the instructors are asked to inform students in time via announcements on their website or in the virtual classroom.

Due to the high infection rates, we still recommend wearing a mask in all event formats, for more information, see downloads on the mask recommendation. Where possible, distancing with a minimum of 1.5 meters is also still recommended (seating plan in a pattern akin to a checkerboard where applicable).

Generally, the access regulations are no longer in effect, yet exceptions still apply at Uniklinik RWTH Aachen.

What continuing education offerings are currently available?

Due to the coronavirus crisis, many continuing education events at RWTH cannot be held as in-person events. However, in order to enable all employees to benefit from educational offerings, many events are now available in digital formats. To make it easier for you to see which events are offered online, the events database can now be filtered according to the formats "Online," "In-person," and "Blended (Online & in-person)". If you have any questions about specific course offerings, please get in touch with the organizers of the course.

Are there any restrictions to the service offerings provided by RWTH's central administration?

For current regulations and service hours of the Waste Management Service Center (SCA), please refer to the RWTH intranet web pages at Corona-Sonderregelungen (de). 

Does the current situation have an impact on University sports?

You can find more information here.

What can I do if I am affected by the limited hours offered by childcare facilities, pre-schools, and schools?

If our employees have difficulties coming to work as normal because childcare facilities, schools, and other institutions are only open limited hours, please get in touch with your superiors to find a solution or to take advantage of the range of subsitute offers such as paid child sick leave.

Parents are offered different options for financial relief such as paid child sick leave or wage replacement in accordance with § 56 of the Infection Protection Act (IFSG). The state government of North Rhine-Westphalia has also created a further relief option for self-employed and privately insured parents in the form of a childcare allowance.

Employees of RWTH who are looking for a carer for their children in the private sector can continue to use the babysitting network. The requirements of the Corona-Schutzverordnung (Coronavirus Protection Ordinance) of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia must be observed.

If you have any questions or need advice, the Family Services Center of the Equal Opportunities Office () and your contact person in the responsible HR department will be happy to help.

The most current information can also be found on our RWTH Corona-News Blog.


When can I claim child sick leave pay due to closure or prohibited access to schools or daycare centers?

Parents who have statutory health insurance will now be able to apply for 30 instead of 20 days of child sick leave pay (Kinderkrankengeld) per statutorily insured child and parent in 2022 and for a maximum total of 65 days if the parent has more than one child. The entitlement for single parents increases by 40 days to 60 days per child, with up to a maximum of 130 days if the parent has more than one child. This new regulation applies retroactively from January 5 and applies to children under 12 (exception: children with disabilities).

You can apply for child sick leave by contacting your statutory health insurance. Unpaid leave from RWTH is granted after you submit your "Freistellung zur Betreuung eines kranken Kindes" application which can be found in the forms database.

Please refer to the German government website for more information in German.

We recommend that you contact your statutory health insurance company directly beforehand.


Which rules apply for civil servants in case of only partially reopened schools or daycare centers ?

According to the “Freistellungs- und Urlaubsverordnung NRW” (NRW Sick Leave Ordinance), all civil servants (without taking into account the annual salary limit) can be granted leave for the calendar year 2022 to care for a sick child (Section 33 (1) no. 6 FrUrlV NRW). In the event of pandemic-related restrictions on access to childcare services, civil servants can also receive leave for up to a maximum of 30 working days for each child and up to a maximum of 60 working days for single-parents. The maximum entitlement is not more than 65 days, for single-parent civil servants not more than 130 working days.
Prerequisites are that no other person living in the household is available to care for the child and that there are no official reasons for not doing so.
Civil servants must submit proof of the pandemic-related restriction on access to childcare to the Human Resources Department with their application for a leave of absence. Special leave under § 33 para. 1 no. 8 FrUrlV NRW (up to three working days in other urgent cases) counts towards the aforementioned maximum limits.

Childcare days are granted regardless of whether staff can work from home.
If you have any questions, please contact the Human Resources Department.

Can I obtain compensation for lost income under Section 56 of the Infection Protection Act due to only partially reopened daycare centers and schools or a ban for my child to attend?

If you cannot go to work because daycare centers and schools are only open on a restricted basis and you suffer a loss of earnings because you have to care for your child, you can receive compensation. This also applies if you have to care for your child because of an order to self-isolate or quarantine. The compensation is intended to protect you against excessive loss of income.

Parents or guardians who have to stay at home due to restricted opening of schools and daycare centers or due to a child’s quarantine requirement and lose income as a result are entitled to compensation.

The conditions at a glance:

  • The child or children are under twelve years of age or in need of care due to a disability.
  • Any flextime or overtime, as well as any remaining vacation days from the previous year must have been exhausted.
  • There is no reasonable alternative care option
  • The wage replacement amounts to 67 percent of the net income, but a maximum of 2,016 euros per month.
  • The payment is available for a maximum period of 20 weeks from the date of the first application.
  • There is no earnings replacement for vacation periods during which schools and daycare centers would have been closed anyway. They are therefore not counted towards the 20-week period.
  • This option also applies in principle to privately insured employees; it does not apply to civil servants.

For the period of the aforementioned childcare, you will be released from the obligation to perform work. Instead, you will be paid the wage replacement benefit via the LBV. The LBV will also pay the social security contributions on an assessment basis of 80 percent of the salary.

Please submit your application to your HR department using this form.

In principle, employees are entitled to compensation under Section 56 (1a) IfSG if their child has been banned from a childcare facility or school or if compulsory attendance at a school has been suspended. An official recommendation to care for children at home is not sufficient in this case.

While employees receive child sick leave pay, the entitlement to wage replacement under the Infection Protection Act is suspended for both parents.

For more information on wage replacement under Section 56, please refer to the German webpage on Entschädigungen bei Quarantäne, Tätigkeitsverbot oder Schließung von Schulen und Betreuungseinrichtungen (compensation for quarantine, ban on activities or closure of schools and childcare facilities).

When and how must stored data concerning immunization or testing status be destroyed?

Data collected by RWTH from its employees to monitor access arrangements under past Coronavirus measures must be destroyed no later than 6 months after collection.

Paper data must be destroyed in suitable shredders. Digital data including backup copies must be irrevocably deleted.


FAQS about teaching and learning

What do students enrolling at RWTH for the first time have to do?

Students have to enroll online. They will be informed by email about the necessary steps. For further information, or if you do not receive said email within 10 working days of receiving your notification of admission, please contact Division 2.1 – International Office at +49 241 80 90670 or by .

Are any of the study spaces open and available?

  • Central and decentralized study spaces are open again
  • A booking is still required for some study spaces.
  • We recommend that you continue to wear a mask in the study spaces. For more information, click here.

What support do lecturers have in order to adjust to the situation?

The Center for Teaching and Learning Services, CLS for short, offers central video recordings and other forms of support, so that teaching can continue wherever possible despite the restrictions related to the coronavirus. The CLS website offers detailed information on distance and online teaching.

Does the current situation have an impact on University sports?

You can find more information here.

I am an international student and have questions about the organization of my studies or stay abroad.

For all questions concerning the organization of your studies or stay in Aachen, please contact the Info Service Center of the International Office. If you missed the welcome events for new international students, you can find all the video presentations, FAQs, and more information on the Welcome Week website.


What networking opportunities are available to international students?

If you are looking for ideas for international and intercultural events, follow the International Office on Instagram, where they regularly post tips and new online offers. The Facebook group RWTH Welcomes Internationals is another great networking opportunity.

RWTH offers many opportunities to network with other people outside of your studies. You can find a short overview of the many possibilities for leisure activities on the website for extracurricular and leisure activities. Whether sports, language courses, events organized by AStA, or working in a club, there is something for everyone.


Where can international students who need support due to the current situation get information on individual topics?

If you have any questions regarding your studies or your stay here, please contact the Info Service Center of the International Office. The advisory team will be happy to assist you in clarifying your questions.


What funding options are available for student parents?

Bridging aid: scholarships for students in need

German and international students who are enrolled at state and state-recognized universities in Germany can apply for the bridging aid.

Those who already receive a loan, scholarship, or similar in the concerned months can still receive bridging aid. Depending on proven need, an amount between 100 euros and 500 euros can be issued as a non-repayable grant.

Further information can be found at Studierendenwerk Aachen.

Bridging grants from the University and proRWTH:

The #RWTHhilft initiative supports students in need due to the coronavirus pandemic, so they can continue their studies or complete their degree program.
For more information, please contact AStA.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the Social Counseling Service of ASTA as well as the Family Services Center of the Equal Opportunities Office ().


The standard period of study has been extended by one semester for all students. Therefore, students should receive BAföG for an additional semester. However, this only applies to those whose funding entitlement only expires after the current semester.

More information is available at Studierendenwerk Aachen.

Supplemental child allowance

Supplemental child allowance can only be considered for students whose education is eligible for support according to BAföG in special circumstances. The supplemental allowance offers financial support to low-income families. In order to be eligible, the following requirements must be met:

  • You receive child benefit (or a comparable benefit) for the child
  • Your gross income is at least 900 euros (parent couples) or 600 euros (single parents)
  • Your gross income does not exceed the maximum income limit (ALG II rate)
  • Together with the child supplement, your income exceeds the entitlement amount for unemployment benefit II or social benefits

The supplemental child allowance must also be applied for at the Family Office of the Employment Agency. It amounts to a maximum of 205 euros per month per child and is usually granted for six months. You can find more information about the allowance here.

Please feel free to contact the Family Services Center of the Equal Opportunities Office () as well as the Social Counseling Service of ASTA if you have any questions or need advice.

Further information on the topic of student financing during the coronavirus crisis can be found here.

Are bathroom breaks allowed during remote virtual exams?

Bathroom breaks may not be prohibited even during remote examinations.
If maximum times are specified for bathroom breaks in advance, exceeding the time window does not justify the assumption of a cheating attempt.


FAQs on travel

What do I need to consider when traveling or returning from travel?

Travel on University business is possible again. Information on regulations for travelling abroad is available on the website of the Federal Ministry of Health: Current Information for Travelers

Information on regulations in place at RWTH is available on the intranet at: Auslandsdienstreisen (de).